Indian philosophy and knowledge for self-realisation and self-reliance

-Dr. Ajay Kumar Singh

Assistant Professor

BAJMC, TIAS,

New Delhi

mail-ajaybhu2010@gmail.com

Contact-9608010072, 8210045452

Abstract

In the era of global pandemic each and every country is struggling to keep his country and citizen intact. There is question of existence in front of citizen, society and country. Lots of debate is going around how to tackle this menace. As the day by day is passing things are moving on the uncertain direction. Every preparation demands extra effort from government side also and from the public side also. Our prime minister Mr. Narendra Modi has emphasis on the need of swadeshi (स्वदेशी) and swavalamban(स्वावलंबन). The two generic words are doing round in the academic circle for further discussion and clearance. Lots of webinar has been conducted on the implementation part of this two words. What are the challenges to apply this two words efficiently. How to draft the economy to became self-reliant. How to mould the society in order to shape the country in the line of self-reliance direction. Now the challenge is to find out the way and modalities to empower our nation in the said direction. Now in the situation of bewilderedness and dark the only way is the way of knowledge which can be helpful to show the path of self-reliance. India has a rich tradition of knowledge and acumen. Indian society is fill with the philosophical and spiritual thought. Only the need is to rediscover and highlight it. To find out the simplest way in which this can be gained and after research and effort can be implemented.

Keywords

Global, Self-Reliant, Empower, Knowledge, Acumen, Philosophical, Spritual, Rediscover, Highlight, Implement.

Objective

  1. To show Indian philosophy and knowledge system is complete.
  2. Its benefits is trans-national any one can realise it irrespective of his or her belonging and background.
  3. India has deep rooted philosophical culture and heritage starting from the early stage of civilisation.
  4. Realisation of self is the highest form of knowledge.
  5. Indian Philosophy and culture has answer to every rising question.
  6. Indian philosophy has the path to show for cessation of suffering to the world.
  7. Indian philosophy and methodology is perfect one.

Area

To study the Indian philosophical system and its outcome various sites available on the Internet was studied. Now a days it is the only source which is easily and safely available. It has the vast domain of data related with every field.

Methodology

As the area was already decided then off-course the methodology would be based on the secondary data. Literature available as a secondary data was analysed, observed, reviewed and interpreted as a present paper.

Introduction

India is emerging super power on the world platform. Gradually it is evolving itself from the past. In present also Indian is one of the leading country in the world. India is playing important role on world panorama. India was self-reliant country in past also. Only after coming of the britishers it situation deteriorated. The importance of the India can be judge form the fact of the statement made by Victor Alexander Vruce, the Viceroy of British in India “India is the pivot of our Empire… If the Empire loses any other part of its Dominion we can survive, but if we lose India, the sun of our Empire will have set.”[1] The above statement was made in 1894. At this time of history India was the domain which contain everything that’s was the symbol of self-reliance. Moving some back in the history not only Britishers has acknowledge the importance of India but the French traveller, Bernier describe 17th century Bengal in the following words- “the knowledge I have acquired of Bengal in two visits inclines me to believe that it is Richer than Egypt. It exports, in abundance, cottons and silks, rice, sugar and butter. It produces amply for its own consumption-wheat, vegetables, grains, fowls, ducks and geese.”[2] Slightly moving more back in the Mugal era India was symbol of prosperity and treasury. The magnificent Taj Mahal and other monuments are witness of it. Moving more back Gupta era was known as the golden period of India. In the time of Ashoka India was the land of enlightenment. In the vedic era vedas was written which are still the source of knowledge and wisdom. The literature that was created in the ancient period are light house for today. India was the source of knowledge and prosperity not for the self only but for the whole world. India resides in the culture, philosophy and tradition spread across its diverse society and people. Indianness gain power form its varied culture and diversity.

Indian Philosophy

Indian philosophy, the systems of thought and reflection that were developed by the civilisations of the Indian subcontinent. It reflects the thought process that was prevailing in this continent. The hindi term of the philosophy is “Darshana”. “Darshana” stands for the power to see the reality. It is the knowledge to perceive the truth as it is. It is the power to visualise the ultimate truth and power. Indian philosophy include both orthodox (astika) systems[3], namely, the

  • Nyaya,
  • Vaisheshika,
  • Samkhya,
  • Yoga,
  • Purva-Mimamsa (or Mimamsa),
  • Vedanta

Indian philosophy also includes unorthodox (nastika) systems[4], such as

  • Buddhism,
  • Jainism,
  • Charvaka

When we called orthodox then it doesn’t necessarily mean believe in the existence of the god but it mean believe on the existence and authority of veda where as unorthodox system refute the veda. The western believes in the individual system of philosophy. Where as in the India we have school of philosophy in which many one through out the generation has contributed for its enrichment and development. In this way it is evident that Indian school of philosophy is more mature and grounded. Thats why individualism is not promoted in the India. Our effort is to grow in the togetherness. We have never advocate individualism. Indian philosophy is fulled with the inner reflection rather than outer reflection as the western philosophy stands. Indian philosophy has rich historical background. Our philosophy is not only limited to the Indian soil but it has crossed the boundaries and reach to the foreign soil also. With it the culture and tradition of India has also reached to the other country. Our philosophy is the epitome of the knowledge and realisation. It is the lighthouse to show the path in darkness.

Indian philosophy and knowledge

Indian philosophy is the seat of knowledge and wisdom. It is the bedrock of all the manifestation. All pervasive and all extinct is the personification that has been very well described in the Indian philosophy. Nothing is left nothing is undefined in Indian philosophy. It it ocean of knowledge. It depends upon the user how much he is able to get out form it. See the lines below how impact fully these lines establish the importance of knowledge in the Indian system-

नास्ति विद्या समंचक्षु

नास्तिसत्य समं तपः।

नास्ति राग समं दुखं

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नास्ति त्याग समं सुखं॥[5]

Naasti Vidya Samam Chakshu

Naasti Satya Samam Tapah |

Naasti Raga Samam Dukham

Naasti Tyaga Samam Sukham ||

It mean knowledge is the greatest eye. Truth is the highest penance. Attachment is the biggest pain. Renunciation is the highest happiness. It is an ideal representation for the Indian value of knowledge. The knowledge in the Indian system has greatest importance. To reach the truth is highest part of it. The way to reach it is also mention in Indian knowledge system. To understand the systems of knowledge, Indic philosophy accepts six pramanas[6]— proofs and means of knowledge. These pramanas form the epistemology of Indian wisdom. Epistemology, the philosophical study of the nature, origin, and limits of human knowledge. It is the science which study the characteristic of knowledge form where it originated and how it can be helpful for the mankind. What is the cause and effect between the derivatives of knowledge. The Pramanas are:

  • Pratyakṣa meaning perception,
  • Anumana or inference,
  • Upamana or comparison and analogy,
  • Arthāpatti meaning postulation, derivation from circumstances,
  • Abhava or nonexistence,
  • shabda meaning word or testimony of the past sages and philosophers.

While talking each of them in detail manner we can have a specific idea related with each epistemology.

Pratyakṣa or Perception is defined as process of one’s ultimate experience of the world and involves further processing of sensory input.[7] Here sensory mean all our five sense organ club together with brain. Sight, taste, touch, hearing and smell are five senses they use to provide outer data form the outside world and transmit it to the brain for further action. Each sense organ has been specific and specialised to provide different information to the brain. When the information is reached to the brain then it works on the data provided by the sense organs. It observe, organise, analysis, interpret and translate the data. Thus brain transfer the information into the knowledge. Which again is utilise to understand the outer and inner world. The robust realist position of this is defended by the Nyaya-Vaisesika and Mimamsa schools, the nominalist by the Buddhist schools and the conceptualist by the Vedantins and Jainas.[8] The beauty of the whole process is this that this all activity takes place within fraction of second. There is also the talk of sixth sense which is said to be in middle of the forehead. It is said to be powerful enough to see and predict the future and it is also powerful enough to see and organise the past. This sense can be activated with rigorous following disciple and control in the personal life over five sense organ. There are the step in the yoga philosophy mentioned to arise the inner strength and power to visualise the future.

Next comes anumana or inference knowledge that comes after perception is inferntial or relational and it is called inference. The word ‘anumana’ literally means the cognition, which follows from other knowledge. Here the prefix ‘anu’ means ‘after’ and ‘māna’ means ‘knowledge’.[9] It is a type of knowledge that follows the other knowledge. This other knowledge is known as perception. It is a knowledge which is get through step by step process. It is know the relation between the two or more factual data. All systems of Indian philosophy except the Carvaka which has materialistic approach admit Inference as a means of valid knowledge. This particular relationship is universal in nature. That it mean whenever and wherever the first situation will occur then the same result will follow. There is very famous and quit old example quoted in this section that is seeing the smoke on the mountain any one can infer that there is fire on the mountain. Now any where in world and in in any part of time if anybody will see the smoke then he or she will infer the same result. Thats the beauty of the knowledge.

Upamana or comparison and analogy is next important way to gain the knowledge. The term upamana has been translated in various ways as comparison, analogy, identification, knowledge by similarity or knowledge by assimilation, etc. It is the knowledge derived from comparison and generally corresponds to analogy. Samkhya Yoga epistemology upamana is derived from the words ‘upa’ meaning ‘sadrsya’ or “similary” and “mana” meaning “cognition” (upa Mat lyut). Hence, Upamana derivatively means the knowledge of the similarity between two things.[10] In day to day life we are very much depended on the analogy for the sake of knowledge and understanding. We usually teach the children with the help of this methodology. When we want to know about the world then we take the help of globe for the idea and knowledge of earth. In such a way it is one of the major source of knowledge for all and one.

Arthapatti meaning postulation is another way to reach the source of knowledge. Postulation is a valid source of knowledge (Pramaṇa) for the Mimamsa schools and for Advaita Vedanta. It is the postulation of what explains through the knowledge of what is to be explained. It is the process of knowledge which makes something intelligible by assuming something else.[11] We have seen this method is highly used in the mathematics to get the answer. There is the way to reach the unknown through the known way and it is none another than postulation way. In research also this way is uses to find out the result it is highly used in the research methodology called as hypothesis. Hypothesis is nothing but to know the concrete through the already assumed way. In day to day life also this way is highly used for the sake to find out the right conclusion. Taking another example if we say that this board contain the colour green then at the same time we also mean that this board doesn’t contain the colour red, yellow, blue etc.

Abhava or nonexistence is the one of the way to find out the right outcome through the present fact. According to the Nyaya-Vaiseṣikas every experience should be noticed objectively in the world. Nyaya-Vaisesikas are realists and thus they hold the view that every experience has its counterpart in the external world. Abhava or non-existence is nothing but manifestation of this thought. Everybody experiences a piece of ground where there is no jar, or when a jar is destroyed, people recognise its destruction. In these cases, what is experienced is the absence (abhava) of the jar. The Nyaya-Vaisesikas here opine that this experience must have its counterpart in the external world. In other words, the absence of jar must have an objective reality. And hence, the Nyaya-Vaiseṣikas accept abhava (non-existence or negation) as a separate category.[12]

Shabda or verbal testimony is next another prominent way to know the knowledge. This way is highly accepted. Testimony is one of the accepted and pristine source of knowledge. By the method of this only teacher use to impart knowledge to the students. Knowledge of objects, incident, happening, issues or anything derived through words is known as subdue. It is also defined as valid testimony, i.e., the testimony of a trustworthy person (apta) who knows the truth and conveys it correctly. Sabda literally signifies sound (dhvani) but epistemologically it means a meaningful sound or a word.[13] In the philosophical systems (darshans), shabda is equated with the authority of the Vedas (the most-ancient sacred scriptures) as the only infallible testimony, since the Vedas are deemed to be eternal, authorless, and absolutely infallible. The Vedanta school extends this authoritativeness to suprasensual objects—e.g., to brahman, the ultimate reality.[14] On the basis of practicality this way of knowledge is of highest common uses. The children believe on their parents only due the scared nature of testimony. The basis, validity and acceptability of religious writing is based on the testimony only. Thats why the school of logic, Nyaya, accepts verbal testimony as a valid source of knowledge. According to both the school human and divine both has a valid means of knowledge. Again they note that only the divine knowledge of the Vedas is infallible. That is beyond any question and doubt. Testimony of the past sages and philosophers are highly accepted in our system.

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Self and Knowledge

self realisation is the highest form of realisation. Only the person who has the power and knowledge about himself can bring change in the society and ultimately bring changes to the world. Indian philosophy has lot of respect of the self knowledge. Know the self is to know the world. Each and every work starts from the self decision. This is the knowledge about the ones quality on the basis of which the decision is to be reach. If that decision is calculated one then no one can stop form graining desired output. One Indian shloka has highest level of representation of knowledge in Indian system.

“न चोराहार्यम् न च राजहार्यम्,

न भ्रातृभाज्यं न च भारकारि।

व्यये कृते वर्धत एव नित्यं,

विद्याधनं सर्वधनप्रधानम्”॥[15]

It mean that knowledge cannot be stolen by thieves, nor can it be taken away by the kings. It cannot be divided among brothers, it does not have a weight. If spent regularly, it always keeps growing. The wealth of knowledge is the most superior wealth of all!

Once the knowledge is gain than that is for life long. It can serve as a good companion. That knowledge is personal asset. No one can take it off. So is the highest level of respect and practicality of knowledge in Indian philosophy. Time will come and go but the knowledge will always remain good friend even it has the power to lead to salvation. In buddhism the quote ‘अप्प दीपो भव’[16] is very famous it mean that be your own lamp. This quote was given Gautam Buddha. According to this quote no one is there to show you the path. It is you only who have to do so. Teacher will come and go in your life it depend upon you to choose the right track and traverse on it. No one can fight for you. You have to fight for yourselves. You are the guru of yours. Today you are surrounded with the friend and family but one day you will be alone. So became strong follow your own path. Be your master. Indian philosophy is full of such lines which ushered in the era of truth. It’s not easy to know the ultimate reality but once any body has the power and trust to know the reality no one stop form it. In Gita also at a place written-

ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः।

तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम्।।[17]

It mean that once you have the ultimate knowledge then it is sure that with it you are going to destroy your ignorance. Only knowledge has the power to show the light at the end of the tunnel. Ignorance is responsible for all suffering once this ignorance is mitigated then automatically suffering will end. In buddhism philosophy the Nobel eight fold path is the way to achieve the knowledge to mitigate the suffering. These Noble eight fold path[18] is-

  • Right understanding (Samma ditthi)
  • Right thought (Samma sankappa)
  • Right speech (Samma vaca) 
  • Right action (Samma kammanta)
  • Right livelihood (Samma ajiva) 
  • Right effort (Samma vayama)
  • Right mindfulness (Samma sati)
  • Right concentration (Samma samadhi)

Indian philosophy and tradition is very rich one. It has not a single way to show the right path to know the reality but it has multiple way to reach the zenith of knowledge. It depends upon the practitioner to choose and follow the path. Right wise Ashtanga, the eight limbs of yoga[19], is Patanjali’s classification of classical yoga, as set out in his Yoga Sutras. He defined the eight limbs as

  • Yama (abstinences),
  • Niyama (observances),
  • Asana (postures),
  • Pranayama (breathing),
  • Pratyahara (withdrawal),
  • Dharana (concentration),
  • Dhyana (meditation)
  • Samadhi (absorption).

Like wise other school of Indian philosophy yoga school is also having a way to attain the perfect knowledge. By following the regressive path of yoga sutra one can gain perfect, precise and complete knowledge of self. No any obstacle will come in the way to gain the knowledge. We know that knowledge is power. To be powerful knowledge can be the ladder. Indian philosophy is so powerful and motivational that no any philosophy of world can tally it. It helps in complete development of personality. Indian philosophy is one of the perfect and complete philosophy in the present time. Such and such beautiful lines are their in the Indian philosophy that any one will get attached to it. The most astonishing thing is that it all was written at that moment of time when the world can’t even think of it. So deeply entrenched is our Indian Philosophy. Any one who will go through the detail of Indian philosophy will feel proud of his or her Indianness. See for example some line from Brihadaranyaka Upanishad

असतो मा सदगमय ॥ तमसो मा ज्योतिर्गमय ॥ मृत्योर्मामृतम् गमय ॥[20]

It mean lead me from falsehood to truth; lead me from darkness to light; lead me from death to immortality.

The true knowledge is the knowledge of truth. The ultimate fact is the knowledge about death. All this is deeply analysed and covered in the Indian philosophy. Such a brilliant meaning of this beautiful lines from Brihadaranyaka as of it seems that it is written today. Brihadaranyaka Upanishad was composed about 700 BCE[21]. Which precedes the timeline of Buddhism and Jainism. Only with this anyone can imagine how far the Indian philosophy is deeply rooted in the Indian soil. India is the land of spiritualism and enlightenment. It is the India where the great personality of the time has taken birth. Buddha, Mahavira, Krishan, Rama all have taken birth in this land. Not only this but more than this have dwelled in this holy land. India is full of such great incarnation. India is the land of glory and wisdom. This land is fulled with yogi and rishi through out in the history. Thats the reason India has always been the world leader when it comes to guide as a guru.

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At the height of the knowledge when every things comes to the realisation of the self then the words comes “अहम् ब्रह्मास्मि”[22] mean “I am Brahman” mentioned in Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. It is the height of knowledge which is gained through the vehicle of self-realisation. At this sage no vagueness is there in the intellect. At the pinnacle of the knowledge darkness fade away and things became crystal clear. The individual soul is connected to the super soul that is the central power to control the universe. Who is super consciousness and have knowledge of every thing. All pervasive and all powerful. Nothing is hidden from the domain of his knowledge. He can move freely in the past and future. No objection can comes into his way. Thats why he is prefect in thinking and decision. In totality he is called almighty and on the individual leve it is found in every body. Just is to realise it, cultivate it, achieve it and be closer to the supreme authority. At the point of this no further craving is felt. Perfect satisfaction and contentment is realised.

Conclusion

Indian philosophical system is the richest one in the world. It has the power to lead the country and society. Indian philosophical system is perfect one. Be it the tool of self-actualisation or self-empowerment Indian philosophy has no any alternative in the world. Some of the important conclusion that can be drawn about Indian philosophy and knowledge system are-

  1. The most important point is Indian philosophy is time tested one. It is one of the oldest system in the world. The Indian civilisation is continuous one where as no any civilisation in the world has continuity upto now. In this way our philosophy is also oldest and continuous one.
  2. Indian philosophy believes in the school of philosophy. The benefit is that there are many one from across the Indian culture, generation, society and history to practice the each system according to their faith. So ultimately all the schools are very rich and trial and tested one.
  3. Indian philosophical way of knowledge works for the upliftment of the practitioner from the grassroots level onwards with very defined and scientific way. Ultimately it leads to the self-actualisation and self-realisation.
  4. It may be that different school has the different path and nomenclature for the way to self-realisation but once anyone reaches to the highest level then he will come to know that each way leads to the same hight. It like that the person who is ascending the ladder to reach the roof then while ascending he thinks that this is the only way to the roof but once he climb the roof then he has the knowledge of other way also whether exit or not.
  5. One of the important aspect of Indian philosophy is that it shows the way to cessation of suffering and misery. Even it shows the cause of suffering and misery on a scientific and logical way.
  6. There are lot of chaos and disestablishment across the world now-a-day. Lots of question is unanswered. People are bewildered due to the global pandemic. Indian philosophy has the power to answer each question. It has the power to provide stability and immunity too. Without waiting for the tomorrow for any breakthrough form the third party our philosophy and its practising can provide courage and confidence to fight from today onwards.
  7. Indian philosophy as well as Indian potential of knowledge and wisdom can lead the country and society to achieve the target of swadeshi (स्वदेशी) and swavalamban(स्वावलंबन). It will start form the individual self but in long run it will visualise on the group basis and further mass basis and ultimately whole country will be swavalambi. No need to look left or right way e.g other countries. We need to look ourselves and our past only to rediscover the glory and magnificent that was India. As the revered Swami Dayanand Saraswati’s saying is “Back to veda”. Which is nothing but our glorious past.

Reference-

  1. Negi Singh Saurabh.(2015,November26).Economics” Class – 11″ NCERT.Retrieved form https://www.slideshare.net/Saurabh1002/economics-class-11
  2. The Colonial Legacy – Myths and Popular Beliefs.(n.d).The Colonial Legacy – Myths and Popular Beliefs. Retrieved from https://www.archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/colonial-legacy
  3. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.(2011September27).Āstika.Retrieved fromhttps://www.britannica.com/topic/astika
  4. Ibid
  5. AGRAWAL PRAVIN.(2015,MAR 30).नास्ति विद्या समं चक्षु नास्ति सत्य समं तप:।. Retrieved formhttps://www.speakingtree.in/allslides/1a-491544
  6. Srivastava Sonal.(2015,july14).Salient features of Indian philosophy.Retrieve form https://www.speakingtree.in/blog/salient-features-of-indian-philosophy
  7. Essays, UK. (November 2018). The Five Stages of Perception. Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/psychology/definition-and-the-five-stages-of-perception-psychology-essay.php?vref=1
  8. Perceptual Experience and Concepts in Classical Indian Philosophy.(2015,June22).Perceptual Experience and Concepts in Classical Indian Philosophy.Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/perception-india/
  9. Inference as a Source of knowledge.(n.d).Inference as a Source of knowledge. Retrieved form https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/31682/9/09_chapter%203.pdf
  10. Comparison as a source of knowledge.(n.d).Comparison as a source of knowledge.Retrieved fromhttps://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/31682/10/10_chapter%204.pdf
  11. Arthāpatti | Postulation / Presumption.(2019,June19).Arthāpatti | Postulation / Presumption.Retrieved formhttps://onecosmicmind.blogspot.com/2019/06/arthapatti.html
  12. ABHĀVA AS A SEPARATE CATEGORY.(n.d).ABHĀVA AS A SEPARATE CATEGORY.Retrieved formhttps://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/64250/14/14_chapter%207.pdf
  13. Testimony as a source of knowledge.(n.d).Testimony as a source of knowledge.Retrieved from https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/31682/11/11_chapter%205.pdf
  14. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.(2015,February 12). Shabda.Retrieved formhttps://www.britannica.com/topic/shabda
  15. priyatipadma.(n.d).विद्या: Knowledge.Retrieved fromhttps://www.wattpad.com/673536980-quotes-in-sanskrit-विद्या-knowledge
  16. KaliaJyoti.(2016,May17).अप्प दीपो भव.Retrieved fromhttps://hindi.speakingtree.in/blog/अप्प-दीपो-भव
  17. ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः । तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम्‌ ॥ (16).(2017,December4).ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः । तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम्‌ ॥ (16).Retrieved fromhttp://bhagavadgitakarmavairagyayoga.blogspot.com/2017/12/16.html
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  19. CARRICO MARA.(2017,July10).Get to Know the Eight Limbs of Yoga.Retrieved from https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/the-eight-limbs
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  21. Mark J. Joshua.(2020,June10).Upanishads.Retrieved fromhttps://www.ancient.eu/Upanishads/
  22. The Best Upanishads Quotes.(n.d).The Best Upanishads Quotes.Retrieved from http://yogananda.com.au/upa/Upanishads01.html
  1. Negi Singh Saurabh.(2015,November26).Economics” Class – 11″ NCERT.Retrieved form https://www.slideshare.net/Saurabh1002/economics-class-11

  2. The Colonial Legacy – Myths and Popular Beliefs.(n.d).The Colonial Legacy – Myths and Popular Beliefs. Retrieved from https://www.archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/colonial-legacy
  3. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica.(2011September27).Āstika.Retrieved fromhttps://www.britannica.com/topic/astika
  4. Ibid
  5. AGRAWAL PRAVIN.(2015,MAR 30).नास्ति विद्या समं चक्षु नास्ति सत्य समं तप:।. Retrieved formhttps://www.speakingtree.in/allslides/1a-491544
  6. Srivastava Sonal.(2015,july14).Salient features of Indian philosophy.Retrieve form https://www.speakingtree.in/blog/salient-features-of-indian-philosophy
  7. Essays, UK. (November 2018). The Five Stages of Perception. Retrieved from https://www.ukessays.com/essays/psychology/definition-and-the-five-stages-of-perception-psychology-essay.php?vref=1
  8. Perceptual Experience and Concepts in Classical Indian Philosophy.(2015,June22).Perceptual Experience and Concepts in Classical Indian Philosophy.Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/perception-india/
  9. Inference as a Source of knowledge.(n.d).Inference as a Source of knowledge. Retrieved form https://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/31682/9/09_chapter%203.pdf
  10. Comparison as a source of knowledge.(n.d).Comparison as a source of knowledge.Retrieved fromhttps://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/31682/10/10_chapter%204.pdf
  11. Arthāpatti | Postulation / Presumption.(2019,June19).Arthāpatti | Postulation / Presumption.Retrieved formhttps://onecosmicmind.blogspot.com/2019/06/arthapatti.html
  12. ABHĀVA AS A SEPARATE CATEGORY.(n.d).ABHĀVA AS A SEPARATE CATEGORY.Retrieved formhttps://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/64250/14/14_chapter%207.pdf
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